The conceptual model of Wae Sano Geothermal field based on geology and geochemistry data

Fajar Rizki Widiatmoko, Mochammad Nur Hadi, Dedi Kusnadi, Sachrul Iswahyudi, Fadlin Fadlin


Wae Sano volcano is included in the inner Banda arc, Mount Wae Sano is a type C volcano and formed the Sano Nggoang crater lake. The magmatism activity produces geothermal manifestations such as; hot spring, rock alteration, and sulfur deposits, the hottest water temperature is 81 0C, with neutral pH, but the Sano Nggoang Lake water has acid pH. It becomes interesting to examine the characteristics of the geothermal system in that area. The research was conducted by Volcanostratigraphic studies to reconstruct the geological process and Geochemical sampling of hot springs, lake water, ground air, and the soil side to understand the subsurface characterization. The result showing some period of volcano products, with the youngest come from the product of Sano Nggoang 2 that spills its product to on the north-east side of Poco Dedeng volcano. The geochemical analysis shows all manifestations originate from one reservoir, chloride water type, NaCl type of the lake water with a few SO4 influence, presumably, the hot springs supply is influenced by seawater, the estimation of the reservoir has a temperature about ± 230 0C, with dacite and the rich organic sedimentary rock, and located at ± 1456 m from the manifestation, the isothermal section shows the rate of temperature increase at 97.07 m / 10 0C. The hypothetical resource is counted about 1,488.6 kWe.


Sano Nggoang, Manggarai Barat Regency, reservoir characterization

Full Text:



R. W. Van Bemmelen, “The Geology of Indonesia. General Geology of Indonesia and Adjacent Archipelagoes,” Government Printing Office, The Hague. 1949, doi: 10.1109/VR.2018.8447558.

R. Soeria-Atmadja, R. C. Maury, H. Bellon, H. Pringgoprawiro, M. Polve, and B. Priadi, “Tertiary magmatic belts in Java,” J. Southeast Asian Earth Sci., 1994, doi: 10.1016/0743-9547(94)90062-0.

M. Neumann Van Padang, “History of the volcanology in the former Netherlands East Indies.,” Scr. Geol., 1983.

. O., D. A. Ramadhan P, F. R. W, and R. T. A, “Identification of Geothermal Potential Based on Fault Fracture Density (FFD), Geological Mapping and Geochemical Analysis, Case Study : Bantarkawung, Brebes, Central Java,” KnE Energy, 2015, doi: 10.18502/ken.v2i2.369.

S. Bronto, “Fasies gunung api dan aplikasinya,” Indones. J. Geosci., 2006, doi: 10.17014/ijog.vol1no2.20061.

S. Bronto, Geologi Gunung Api Purba. 2013.

W. F. Giggenbach, “Geothermal solute equilibria. Derivation of Na-K-Mg-Ca geoindicators,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1988, doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(88)90143-3.

A. J. Ellis and W. A. J. Mahon, “Chemistry and geothermal systems.,” 1977, doi: 10.1016/0031-9201(80)90118-1.

A. J. Ellis and W. A. J. Mahon, “Natural hydrothermal systems and experimental hot-water/rock interactions,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1964, doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(64)90132-2.

K. Nicholson, Geothermal Fluids. 1993.

B. Brahmantyo and Bandono, “Klasifikasi Bentuk Muka Bumi untuk Pemetaan Geomorfologi pada Skala 1:25.000 dan Aplikasinya untuk Penataan Ruang,” Geoaplika, 2006.


M. J. Le Bas and A. L. Streckeisen, “The IUGS systematics of igneous rocks,” J. Geol. Soc. London., 1991, doi: 10.1144/gsjgs.148.5.0825.

F. R. Widiatmoko, A. Zamroni, M. A. Siamashari, and A. N. Maulina, “REKAMAN STASIUN GPS SEBAGAI PENDETEKSI PERGERAKAN TEKTONIK, STUDI KASUS: BENCANA TSUNAMI ACEH 26 DESEMBER 2004,” in Prosiding Seminar Teknologi Kebumian dan Kelautan, 2019, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 236–240, [Online]. Available:

A. Zamroni, O. Sugarbo, R. Prastowo, F. R. Widiatmoko, Y. Safii, and R. A. E. Wijaya, “The relationship between Indonesian coal qualities and their geologic histories,” 2020, doi: 10.1063/5.0006836.

F. R. Widiatmoko, “Pendekatan Analisa Geokimia dengan Multivariate Analysis untuk Mengetahui Tipe Mata Air Panas: Studi Kasus Lapangan Panas Bumi Mapos, Nusa Tenggara Timur,” J. IPTEK, 2019, doi: 10.31284/j.iptek.2019.v23i2.518.

W. F. Giggenbach, “Isotopic shifts in waters from geothermal and volcanic systems along convergent plate boundaries and their origin,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1992, doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(92)90127-H.

A. M. Piper, “A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water?analyses,” Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 1944, doi: 10.1029/TR025i006p00914.

G. Ferguson and T. Gleeson, “Vulnerability of coastal aquifers to groundwater use and climate change,” Nature Climate Change. 2012, doi: 10.1038/nclimate1413.

M. P. Hochstein and S. Sudarman, “History of geothermal exploration in Indonesia from 1970 to 2000,” Geothermics, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.geothermics.2008.01.001.

R. R. Loucks, “Precise geothermometry on fluid inclusion populations that trapped mixtures of immiscible fluids,” Am. J. Sci., 2000, doi: 10.2475/ajs.300.1.23.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Earth and Marine Technology (JEMT) published by LPPM-ITATS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

ISSN: 2723-8105 (LIPI)


Indexed by:



Cooperated with:



suggested use of reference manager, similarity check, and proofread