Development of Renewable Photobioreactor (FBR) Technology with Fluid Hydrodynamics System-Online Monitoring Microcontroller as SNI Standardized Pure Oxygen Producer

Mahendra Satria Hadiningrat, Mayang Sari, Ninik Nigusti Ayu Sunardi


This photobioreactor research was carried out using Chlorella vulgaris algae as an O2-producing reactor and optimizing light energy as its energy source, with dimensions of 40x50x60 cm with control of pH, temperature, and chemical visibility factors. Variations are given by providing a supply of CO2 in both types of photobioreactors. Then it can be seen the concentration of O2 produced from the photobioreactor and its ability to overcome CO2 gas emissions. The use of glass as a reactor-making material is because glass is able to absorb visible light wavelengths in the range of 400–750 nm where at that wavelength microalgae can live and reproduce well. Before selecting the lamp used for the photobioreactor system. Measurements were carried out on two photobioreactors, namely, photobioreactors supplied and not supplied with CO2, and using three types of light sources, namely halogen lamps, LEDs, and sunlight. The maximum oxygen concentration value was produced by the photobioreactor supplied with CO2. The average percent error of the designed tool is 1.383% which is obtained by comparing the value of the designed tool with the reference measuring instrument.


Arduino Uno R3; Chlorella vulgaris microalgae; KE50 Sensor; Non-inverting amplifier; Photobioreactor

Full Text:



B. Ak, E. Atak, M. D. Köse, and O. Bayraktar, “Production of Chlorella sp. in a Designed Photobioreactor,” Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Fen Bilim. Derg., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 377–383, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.18466/cbayarfbe.523332.

A. S. Afifah, I. W. K. Suryawan, and A. Sarwono, “Microalgae production using photo-bioreactor with intermittent aeration for municipal wastewater substrate and nutrient removal,” Commun. Sci. Technol., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 107–111, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.21924/CST.5.2.2020.200.

J. K. B. Bishop and T. J. Wood, “Year-round observations of carbon biomass and flux variability in the Southern Ocean,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles, vol. 23, no. 2, p. n/a-n/a, Jun. 2009, doi: 10.1029/2008GB003206.

E. S. Sofiyah, A. Sarwono, I. Yenis Septiariva, D. I. Wayan, and K. Suryawan, “The Opportunity of Developing Microalgae Cultivation Techniques in Indonesia,” Ber. Biol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 221–233, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.14203/BERITABIOLOGI.V20I2.4000.

A. U. Farahdiba, O. Cahyonugroho, S. N. Nindhita, and E. N. Hidayah, “Photoinhibition of Algal Photobioreactor by Intense Light,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Jul. 2020, vol. 1569, no. 4, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1569/4/042095.

H. Kim, J. K. B. Bishop, T. J. Wood, and I. Y. Fung, “Autonomous water sampling for long-term monitoring of trace metals in remote environments,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 46, no. 20, pp. 11220–11226, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.1021/es3006404.

N. J. Kim and C. G. Lee, “A theoretical consideration on oxygen production rate in microalgal cultures,” Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 352–358, 2001, doi: 10.1007/BF02933005.

G. Detrell, “Chlorella Vulgaris Photobioreactor for Oxygen and Food Production on a Moon Base—Potential and Challenges,” Front. Astron. Sp. Sci., vol. 8, p. 124, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.3389/FSPAS.2021.700579/BIBTEX.

A. Kazbar et al., “Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on microalgal culture in photobioreactors,” Algal Res., vol. 39, p. 101432, May 2019, doi: 10.1016/J.ALGAL.2019.101432.

F. Abiusi, R. H. Wijffels, and M. Janssen, “Doubling of Microalgae Productivity by Oxygen Balanced Mixotrophy,” ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., vol. 8, no. 15, pp. 6065–6074, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1021/ACSSUSCHEMENG.0C00990/ASSET/IMAGES/LARGE/SC0C00990_0004.jpeg.

P. C. Oostlander, J. van Houcke, R. H. Wijffels, and M. J. Barbosa, “Growth and fatty acid content of Rhodomonas sp. under day:night cycles of light and temperature,” Algal Res., vol. 51, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.algal.2020.102034.

P. C. Oostlander, J. van Houcke, R. H. Wijffels, and M. J. Barbosa, “Optimization of Rhodomonas sp. under continuous cultivation for industrial applications in aquaculture,” Algal Res., vol. 47, May 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.algal.2020.101889.

P. C. Oostlander, J. van Houcke, R. H. Wijffels, and M. J. Barbosa, “Microalgae production cost in aquaculture hatcheries,” Aquaculture, vol. 525, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735310.

K. H. Park and C. G. Lee, “Optimization of algal photobioreactors using flashing lights,” Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 186–190, 2000, doi: 10.1007/BF02936592.

J. Wang, “Estimation of Phosphorus Bioavailability in the Water Column of the Bronx River, New York,” J. Environ. Prot. (Irvine,. Calif)., vol. 03, no. 04, pp. 316–323, 2012, doi: 10.4236/JEP.2012.34040.

R. Thunyaporn, I. Doh, and D. W. Lee, “Multi-volume hemacytometer,” Sci. Reports 2021 111, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93477-1.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Indexed by:

Logo SINTASINTAGoogle ScholarJournalStories Main logoIndonesia OneSearch
GARUDA Garba Rujukan DigitalDimensions Logo